Sets in mathematics are an array of items that make up groups. Sets can be any number of items that are a set, whether it is an array of numbers, days of the week, the types of vehicles, and so on. Each of the items included in the set is considered an item in the set. 

Curly brackets are utilised when creating the word set. A model of a set might look like this. Set A = {1,2,3,4,5}. Many different notations describe the components of the set. Sets are typically represented by forms such as a roster form or form for building sets. 

Let’s discuss the Set Theory Symbols and terms in depth.

Sets Definition

In math, a set is a clearly defined collection of objects. Sets are named and portrayed by an alphabet that is capital. The components of a set can be anything, such as people, letters of the alphabet, shapes, numbers, variables, shapes, etc.

Types Of Sets

Empty Set

As the name implies, an empty set is empty and doesn’t contain any of the elements.

The sets are created to make calculations simpler and are frequently used to categorise odd objects or items which are uncommon. Examples of when an empty set can be used for classification are an entire month with 31 days or a week with two Mondays, a pet with five legs, and a solar system with no planets. In math terms, an empty set can be classified as a complete number from 7 to 8. Each of these scenarios has no specific answers and therefore are classified as empty sets.

Singleton Sets

Also, the term “set” refers to a set. It is a Singleton Set, or Unit Set is a set with only one component. AAA is believed to be one of the Singleton Set if the cardinality of the set is one, i.e., n(A)=1\displaystyle n(A)=1n(A)=1.

Let a Singleton set AAA contains only one component, which is the number 222. It can then be written:

AAA = {2}

Finite & Infinite Sets

A set is considered finite if there is a null or when the counting elements will surely come to an end. These are known as finite sets.

In a finite set, the element is listed if it’s restricted, i.e. countable by natural numbers 1 2, 3… while the listing process ends with a particular natural number N.

A number distinct from the elements counted in the infinite set S is indicated as n(S). This number is the total of all elements in the finite set A that is referred to as the order of the cardinal number in the set A and is denoted symbolically by n(A).

So in the case that the set A are those from the English alphabet, Then n(A) is 26. For example, it is comprised of 26 elements. Also, if the set A is vowels of English alphabets, i.e. English alphabets i.e. A = {a, e, i, o, u} then n(A) = 5.

The infinitesimal set can be described as an infinite set of elements that are not listed if it is unlimited (i.e. non-countable) by the natural number 1,2 3 4…n, for any common number, n is known as an infinite set.

A set that is not finite is referred to as an infinite set.

Equal & Equivalent Sets

Equal Sets refer to sets that are identical in terms of several elements and are similar in the arrangement of the elements.

For example, let us set A={All natural numbers less than 10}

B={2,5,8,6,4,3,1,7,9}. Based on these numbers, we conclude that sets A and B are the same set of SETS.

On the other hand,

Equivalent sets are sets that are the same in the number of elements. However, the elements themselves aren’t identical.


Set C={1,3,5,7,9} and set D={a,e,i,o,u}. We consider that set C as well as set b constitute equivalent sets.

Thus, it is possible to think that all Equal Sets are Equivalent Sets. However, there are some exceptions to the rule that Equivalent sets can be equal sets. In mathematical terms, you could claim an equal set can be described as a subset of an Equivalent set.


When A as well as B comprises two sets and each element from the set A includes an element from set B and set B, then A is referred to as an element from B, and we can write A ⊆ B or B ⊇ A (or B A

The symbol  ⊂ means “is a subset of” or is contained in.

* Each set is a subset of its own, i.e. A ⊂ A, B ⊂ B. 

* The empty set constitutes a subset from every set.

The symbol ‘⊆’ can mean the subset that ‘is’ or ‘is a part of’.

* A ⊆ B is a reference to A is an element of B, or is part of B.

* B ⊆ A means B contains A.

Power Sets

Power Set is defined as the collection of all possible subsets of the set. It’s a bit complicated, but in reality, Power sets are simple to understand. Imagine a set that has elements. Write all possible subsets that could be created for that particular set. Then, consider subsets as elements, and they are placed in separate sets. The set will be referred to as a Power set.

A good example of an example of Power set

Set A = {2,3}

Possible Subsets of A = {}, {2}, {3}, {2, 3}

Power set of A = P(A)= {{}, {2}, {3}, {2, 3}}

Universal Set

The universal set is the most powerful of all sets, meaning that it includes every element present in the various sets. It is represented with U, and it is depicted as a rectangle on the Venn diagram. The other sets are contained within the rectangle. This is to demonstrate how the universal set has all possible elements.

Disjoint Sets

In Set Theory, if two or more sets don’t share any common elements, The Intersection of Sets is an empty Set or (Null) Set. This type of Set is known as a Disjoint set. Disjoint sets are the Sets that intersect with each other and result in an empty Set.


We differentiate between Empty set, Finite and Infinite Sets, Equal and Equivalent Sets, Subset, Universal set, and Disjoint Sets. You’re going to meet these sets in your exams BODMAS questions. Just ensure you draw them quickly besides understanding their purposes well. 

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